Ayurvedic Management Of Dysmenorrhoea

         One of the major causes of absenteeism from work , decreasing efficiency and quality of life amongst women is Dysmenorrhoea , also called Menstrual cramps . The word Dysmenorrhoea is derived from Greek word : Dys – difficulty , Menorrhoea – monthly flow . Thus it is defined as pain associated with menstruation . It is the commonest gynecological disorder affecting women in reproductive age group .

      In Ayurveda , the diseases in women are described under ‘ Yonivyapad ’ where Yoni means genital organs and Vyapad means diseases . One of them having similarity with dysmenorrhoea is Udavartini Yonivyapad . The cause of painful menstruation is Vata . The pain is before onset of menses which is relieved with start of menses .


Classification of Dysmenorrhoea :

a)      Primary or Spasmodic :      It is the painful menstruation in the                                                                              absence of pelvic pathology . It is                                                                                  essentially a first day pain .

b)      Secondary or Congestive : It is the painful menstruation secondary to                                                                underlying organic disease of the pelvic                                                                      organs . Pain may continue throughout                                                                        flow.

Risk Factors :

a)      Menstrual Factors : Early menarche ; long and heavy menstrual                                                              cycles.

b)      Cigarette smoking

c)       Behaviourial & Psychological Factors :

  • Just before and during menstruation , most women are less efficient physically and more unstable emotionally – these factors lower the pain threshold .

  • Expectation of pain can be fostered by overanxious parents and by curtailment of normal physical activities during menses .

  • Unhappiness at home or work .

d)      Uterine hyperactivity and incoordinate muscle action of the uterus .

e)      Hormonal Imbalance : It has been observed that progesterone                                                                      induces high tone to the uterus .

f)       Prostaglandins : They increase the sensitivity of the nerve endings to                                              pain .


Sign & Symptoms :

     Primary Dysmenorrhoea :

  • Pain is experienced a few hours before and after the onset of menstruation and rarely lasts for longer than 12 hours .

  • It is colicky in type and causes her to double up .

  • Pain is felt in lower abdomen , inner and front aspects of the thighs .

  • Some low backache may be present .

  • During severe attack , woman looks drawn , pale and may sweat . Nausea , vomiting are common . There may be diarrhea and rectal and bladder tenesmus .

  • In  50 %  of cases the pain does not arise until 6 – 12 months after menarche .

    Secondary Dysmenorrhoea:

  • It usually develops after a phase of painless menstrual cycles and is seen at older age .

  • Pain is worst premenstrually and relieved during menses .

  • It is diffuse , dull ache in the pelvis often accompanied by backache .

  • Most common causes are Pelvic inflammatory disease ( PID ) ,                     endometriosis , IUCD etc .

Management :

a)      General Measures :

i)    Counselling : Explaining young girls regarding the condition and reassurance should be an essential component in the treatment plan . Girls should be taught to have a proper outlook on menstruation and health in general .

ii)    Improvement in nutritional status and dietary changes .

 b)      Physical Activity : It can be in the form of yoga , walk , exercise ,                                                           aerobics etc . The yogasanas which are helpful in                                                           dysmenorrhoea are pavanmuktasana ,                                                                         bhujangasana , paschimottanasana ,                                                                             katichakrasana , Pranayam etc .



 c)      Diet :

  • Do’s : whole grains – wheat , rice , oats , millets , quinoa ; fruits , green leafy vegetables , legumes , nuts , seeds – sesame , pumpkin , flax ;  spices –     ginger , garlic , cumin , turmeric , ajwain etc .

  • Dont’s : Cold , salty , sour , junk food , meats , processed food , soft drinks , alcohol.

 d)      Home Remedies :

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